History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
containing a full account of its early settlement; its
growth, development and resources



pg. 491


The county seat of Menominee County is situated at the mouth of the Menominee River, the boundary line between Michigan and Wisconsin, just west of Green Bay into which the river flows. There are three distinct villages at the mouth of the river. On the Wisconsin side, Menekaunee, at the mouth, and Marinette, one and one-fourth miles from the mouth, where the railroad crosses the river, and on the Michigan side Menominee, which is situated on the delta lying between the river and the shore of Green Bay. The village extends from the railroad bridge to the mouth of the river, and along the shore of Green Bay nearly one and one-half miles. The population is increasing rapidly, and the old settlers look forward to see a city of 10,000 inhabitants at an early day. The best qualities of pine timber along the river and its branches, the extensive and rich ranges of iron mines found on the river and now being opened, the immense water power furbished by the numerous falls and rapids on the river, and the extensive ranges of beech and maple lands scattered all through Menominee County, which, when cleared, will furnish abundance of fuel for smelting the ores, and a fertile soil for the agriculturist, all render this a supposition highly probable. The river and its branches drain over 3,000 square miles, and the main river has a fall of upward of 800 feet, two of its cataracts - the Big and Little Quinnesec having descents respectively of eighty feet and sixty feet. In reference to the population and physical characteristics of this district is made in the general history.

The first saw-mill built on the river was in 1836, by FARNSWORTH & BRUSH, at the falls one mile from the mouth of the river; the next at Twin Islands, in 1841, by Charles McLeod. The first steam mill was built in 1854, at Menekaunee, by the New York Lumber Company; the next by the LUDINGTON Company, in 1857, at Marinette; the next by KIRBY, CARPENTER & Co., during the same year, at Menominee, and the next at Menominee, in 1866, by Simon Strauss. At that time, 1866, only about 300 men were worked on the Menominee River. There are now man, large mills working 2,000 men, and cutting each year 160,000,000 feet of lumber.

Until 1863, Menominee was unorganized, and had been attached to Mackinac and afterward to Marquette. At the session of the Legislature for 1863, the inhabitants sent E. S. INGALLS to Lansing to procure the passage of an act to organize the county, which was passed at that session, and the county was organized in May, 1863.

The railroad from Fort Howard to Menominee was completed in December, 1871. The road from Menominee to Escanaba was finished in December, 1872. The first discovery of iron mines was made in 1865, and the first decided effort to open any of them was made by Messrs. E. S. INGALLS, T. P. SAXTON and Thomas and Bartley BREEN, in 1871, at the BREEN Mine.

The first blast furnace was commenced at Menominee in September, 1872, and went into operation January 1,1873. It was estimated to cost $100,000.

The first church erected was in 1868, and was built by subscription from the inhabitants and donated to the First Presbyterian society. During 1872, the Methodists and Catholics commenced the erection of churches. The first school established in Menominee was in 1863; and was wept in an old fish-net house. In 1865, a good schoolhouse was

pg. 492

built, which, in 1867, proving insufficient for the growing wants of the place, was sold, and a house costing $7,000 built for a graded school. During the fire of 1871, only one mill was burned.

The first brick dwelling erected was the residence of S. M. STEPHENSON, which has once been burned and rebuilt. Augustus A. SPIES has lately completed another such residence. The first brick store erected was by Augustus A. SPIES and Harlan P. BIRD, which was built in 1872 at a cost of $12,000.

An appropriation of $16,000 was made, which was used up in surveys; afterward, an appropriation of $25,000 was made, and in 1874, the work of driving piles and building breakwaters was commenced. The channel of the river is wide, but is obstructed by a bar of sand running across the mouth. Other appropriations have since been made and the work has progressed each year. Although the harbor is not completed, the ordinary-sized vessels come in to load.

OLD SETTLERS OTHER THAN PIONEERS Alex LOUGHRY came to Menominee in 1842; Jacob KERN in 1846; John BREEN, Adolph WILSON, Daniel CORRY, Morris HANLEY in 1849; Thomas, Bartley, James, Daniel and Michael BREEN, with their mother; John CORRY and his sister Catherine; Louis HARDWICK, Josiah B. Brooks and his father, Nathaniel, in 1850. Daniel BREEN was killed in 1860 while breaking a jam on the Little Cedar River, by the logs rolling over him. George W. LOVEJOY came in 1851, Gilbert MOREAU in 1852, John N. THERIAULT in 1853, Nicholas GEWEHR, Henry NEWBERRY and William P., his son, came in 1854. Henry NEWBERRY built the first house in the village of Menominee after those of Andrus EVELAND and John QUIMBY. He perished in the great woods fire of 1871, being then on his farm at Peshtigo Sugar Bush. John HANLEY, Daniel NASON, Alanson F. LYON, William G. BOSWELL, William HACKERMAN, Henry BADE, Sr., and family, Frederick and Henry SIEMAN came in 1855; Samuel W. ABBOTT, Henry NASON, Andrew MCIVER and Albert W. BOSWELL in 1856; Thomas CALDWELL in 1857; Leon COTA, Frank EGGERT and Lewis DOHEAS in 1861; William LEHMAN in 1862. Jacob JOHNSON came as early as 1849, and lived here several years. He now resides on a farm at Peshtigo Sugar Bush.


The first newspaper published at Menominee, or about the Menominee River, was the Herald, the first number of which was issued September 10,1863, E. S. INGALLS, editor and proprietor. It was Republican in politics. In 1866-67, Jesse SPALDING, of the Menekaunee Mill, I. STEPHENSON, of the N. LUDINGTON Company, the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company, the R. STEPHENSON Company and Mr. INGALLS each put in $200 and many of the other citizens sums from $1 to $50 each, and a press and type and other outfit for a printing office were bought. Andrew R. BRADBURY came here and took charge of the paper, the purchasers allowing him to take the property without interest, and pay for it as he could. He conducted the paper until January, 1871, when he sold out to James A. CROZER, who, in 1874, sold it to Dudley S. CRANDALL, who conducted it for one year and sold back to CROZER, who is now its editor and publisher.

The Lumberman and Miner was established by a company, of whom the most prominent were John L. BUELL, George HARTER, Philip LOWENSTEIN, William H. JENKINS and Joseph JUTTNER. They bought a press and material in 1873, and procured A. R. BRADBURY to take charge of it, who conducted it for a short time, when John L. MCLAUGHLIN took charge. In January of 1876, John L. BUELL took the press and materials and began printing the Menominee Journal, which he is still publishing.


For many years there was no business at Menominee, nor on the other side of the river. The first institution of a religious character of which tradition informs us was a mission established for the Indians at Mission Point, near where the LUDINGTON Mill now stands, in Marinette. It is not known whether it was Catholic or Episcopal. It is said that early traders did not favor it, as they feared its

pg. 493

influence on the Indians would interfere with their trade, especially in the sale of whisky; so to get rid of it, they induced them to destroy it. Whether this be true or not, it has passed away, and nothing remains but the name - Mission Point. After the organization of the county, in 1868, the people here began to think it better to have churches. There were but few professed Christians, and they were of various denominational belief. No one sect had sufficient strength to erect a building for worship. About this time, Rev. John Fairchild, who was established as pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Marinette, organized a church in Menominee, called the "First Presbyterian Church of Menominee," and Henry LOOMIS, a young theological student, of Auburn Seminary, N. Y. (now a missionary in China), came here to spend his vacation and recruit his health. He was full of zeal, and soon after he came he began to agitate the question of building a church. The people were ready to support such a move, and immediately steps were taken for that purpose. The KIRBY-CARPENTER Company gave a lot, and Mr. LOOMIS went to work and cleared away the bushes. The companies all subscribed liberally, as also did the people, according to their means. The building committee appointed were Samuel M. STEPHENSON, E. S. INGALLS and William P. NEWBERRY, B. W. PORTER, of Waukegan, Ill., was employed to come and take charge of the construction. The church was completed in 1809, and was dedicated July 18 of that year. A contribution was taken up on dedication day, and all arrearage were then paid. The first Trustees were Samuel M. STEPHENSON, Miles SHEPARD, Thomas MURRAY, Edward L. PARMENTER and William P. NEWBERRY. The first pastor was Henry LOOMIS, who accepted the pulpit for four months. The present Trustees are Samuel L. STEPHENSON, Edward L. PARMENTER, Salmon P. SAXTON and Miles SHEPARD. The present pastor is. A. W. BILL.

The number of members when first organized was nine. The present number was seventy-three enrolled, eighteen of whom are absent from the county. The church for a long time was weak, and, without aid from those who were not members of any church, could not have been sustained, yet it always has received liberal assistance, and has maintained steady preaching since that time. To illustrate their weakness and how churches were managed here, Mr. INGALLS relates this incident: "One evening, two or three years after the church was built, a friend said to me, "Come, let's go down to the church meeting. " Not feeling inclined to go, he explained, saying that the time for which the preacher had been employed was about out, that the church was somewhat in arrears, and a meeting was to be held to see what could be done about it, and see about employing a pastor for another year; so I went with him, and although not a member of the society, I was elected Chairman of the meeting. There was but one member of the church present, the others being outsiders, though most of them were regular attendants at church

The business of the previous year was investigated and something over $60 found to be due from the society, which was raised on the spot. The question then came up about hiring a preacher, and it was proposed that the Chairman appoint a committee to confer with the one then there (Rev. PAYSON), and if he did not wish to stay to employ some other one

There was one man present who had done more than any other one toward paying for building the church and supporting it after it was built, who was also a Trustee; though a moral man in all other respects, he had an inveterate habit of swearing, and no doubt was often profane without knowing it. I immediately appointed him Chairman of the committee. As soon as he heard his name spoken in that connection, he jumped up and objected, for, said he, "By G--, Mr. Chairman, you know I can't talk it over with him without swearing." This, of course, brought down the house; I, however, told him that I did not consider that a good excuse, and if he did swear, perhaps the preacher would talk with him and assist him in breaking the habit. He took the position, and a preacher was hired.

This is the first time I ever heard of non-members holding a church meeting, and doing business for the society - even to the extent of hiring a pastor. It has not been repeated here, though the outsiders give the church a hearty support."

In 1872, the Catholics commenced the construction of a church, which they completed in 1873. This is the largest church in the town, and is in every respect a credit to the society. The persons who interested themselves in building this church were Thomas BREEN, Bartley BREEN, Edward HATTON, Joseph GARON and Robert PENGILLY, all of whom, except Thomas BREEN, were the first Trustees. Father M. A. FOX was the first priest who officiated in it. The present Trustees are Bartley BREEN, George HORVATH, Moses FRECHETTE, Joseph GARON and Edward HATTON. The present priest is Father Peter MENARD

The German Lutheran Church. - The construction of this church was commenced in 1873; it was completed in 1874. The members are all German, and the services are usually conducted in that language. The church though not large is quite tasty. The first officers of the society were: George HARTER, President; Henry AMMERMAN, Secretary; Nicholas GEWEHR, Treasurer, and C. TOEPPEL, preacher, who still acts as pastor.

The Methodist Episcopal Church - In 1874, Rev. Richard COPP came here, having been sent to establish a society and erect a church. He found the people suffering from the effects of the financial panic, and not able to respond as liberally as they had; done in such work, previously. Nevertheless he began the work and found the people willing to aid according to their means. He soon had a small snug church up, and completed, ready for dedication. On dedication day, enough money, was raised, or nearly, by contribution to pay off the balance due on the building. In the construction of it, he pulled off his coat and worked as hard, teaming lumber, etc., as any man who works by the day. The secret of his success probably lay in this, for the people, seeing his zeal in the cause, and that he did not spare himself in hard work, felt the more interested in his enterprise, and without doubt contributed more than they otherwise would have done. The pastor was, and still is, Rev. Richard COPP. The present number of members is thirty-seven and nine probationers.

There are no other churches in the county. Those named are all in the village of Menominee. In Marinette there is one of each denomination, the Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist and Scandinavian.


The first society of the kind instituted was the Menominee Lodge, No. 269, A., F. & A. M., which received its dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Michigan August 9, 1869. The charter members were William SOMERVILLE, P. W. M.; Miles SHEPARD, P. W. M; E S. INGALLS, J. L BUELL, Dr. John MURPHY, John HANLEY, S. P. SAXTON and E. Gilbert JACKSON. The first officers were: William SOMERVILLE, W. M.; Miles SHEPARD, S. W.; E. Gilbert JACKSON, J. W.; S. P. SAXTON, Treasurer; John MURPHY, Sec-

pg. 494 etary; C. B. MEYERS, S. D.; U. D. GAGE, J. D.; Jonathan BARKER, Tiler. The number of members when first organized was eighteen; the present number is fifty.

Menominee Lodge, No. 131, L O. O. F.- Was instituted as a lodge October 15, 1869, by dispensation from the R. W. Grand Lodge of Michigan. The charter was received January 20, 1870, from M. W. G. M. J. S. CURTIS. The first elective officers were: George HARTER, N. G.; Clarence BICE, V. G.; Philip LOWENSTEIN, Secretary; Robert MCCULLOUGH, Treasurer, who, with George REED, were the charter members. The lodge was installed by D. D. G. M. C. J. BELLOWS, of Escanaba Lodge, No. 118, assisted by P. G. Stephen GOSS. After the installation, P. G. E. S. INGALLS was admitted and enrolled as an ancient Odd Fellow, and John N. THERIAULT, Julius RUPRECHT, Theodore LINDNER, William H. JENKINS and William LEHMAN were initiated and joined, the lodge then having eleven members. The lodge, although yet young, is the parent of several lodges. At the time this one was organized there was no lodge of the order nearer than Green Bay City, Wis., or Escanaba, in this State. By permission of the Grand Lodge of the respective States, members and candidates were allowed to join it, from Wisconsin, and many did join it from Marinette and Peshtigo. When the membership became large enough the members from Marinette withdrew, and established a lodge in that village Afterward, those from Peshtigo withdrew and established a lodge at home. A lodge was also formed in Oconto, Wis., the first members of which had been members of the lodge in Menominee.

Societe St. Louis de Secours Mutuels de Menominee - The first meeting for the organization of this lodge was held September 22, 1873, is which the constitution of the French Societe of Fond du Lac, Wis., was received and accepted. The society was incorporated in the State of Michigan September 13, 1874. The first officers elected were: Theodore Trudel, President; Louis J. RAICHE, Treasurer, and George ALLARD, Secretary. On the 21st of September, 1874, the society was admitted into the union of the French Societe of the United States of America. The officers for the present term are: Joseph BERNHEIM, President; L. J. RAICHE, Vice President; Albert PAULI, Financial and Corresponding Secretary. The society at present has eighty-eight members, and the active cash capital of the society is $462.39. This society as will be inferred from his name, is composed of French-speaking people. It has done much good; many who otherwise would have suffered, have been relieved, when they have met with accidents or been overtaken by sickness.

Independent Order of Good Templars - A lodge of this order was established in 1870, and was in successful operation for about three years. Its lodge room was burned and it then became disorganized.

FIRE DEPARTMENT In 1872, Engine No. 1, a hand-engine, was bought. About the same time, the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company bought another, but these being insufficient, an Amoskeag (N. H.) steam engine was bought in 1874. The first officers of Engine No.1 were: George HARTER, Foreman; Henry NASON, First Assistant; John J. FARRIER, Second Assistant; Augustus SPIES, Treasurer; Edward LEAKE, Secretary; Charles E. AIKEN, Assistant Secretary.


Hunt &FRASER's Menominee Bank.- This bank began to do business March 7, 1873, under the name Menominee Bank The original proprietors were E. HAYDEN, Frederick STAFFORD (then of Negaunee), and H. J. COLWELL, of Clarksburg, Mich. James FRASER was Cashier.

Its total exchange business since it commenced has been $800,000; the amount paid in checks, $584 179.02; gross business of every kind, $1,500,000.

The Exchange Bank of Menominee - commenced business in 1873. It was begun in 1870 by George A. WOODFORD, Clinton B. FAY and Charles H. JONES, rather as a broker's office than a bank, WOODFORD having the management of the business. Afterward, FAY and JONES sold their interests, and in 1874 Charles E. AIKEN, the present cashier, bought into it, WOODFORD retaining his interests The gross amount of business for 1875 is $350,000. Total business of every kind since its commencement to 1876, $1,000,000.

The German Bank commenced business in 1875. Its business is confined to buying drafts, the funds being furnished by the Stephenson Banking Company, of Marinette. The certificate is filed in the name of Jacob MUTH, Cashier, who attends to the whole business. Gross amount of business for 1875 is $75,000.

THE MENOMINEE RIVER MANUFACTURING COMPANY. This company was incorporated in 1866. The incorporators were Jesse SPALDING, Harrison LUDINGTON, Nelson LUDINGTON, Daniel WELLS, Jr., Abner KIRBY, S. M. STEPHENSON, Isaac STEPHENSON, Robert STEPHENSON, W. O. CARPENTER, Truman WOODFORD, Ely Wright and R. L. HALL, who were constituted the first Board of Directors. The first officers were: Harrison LUDINGTON, President; Isaac STEPHENSON, Vice President; Augustus C. BROWN, Secretary and Treasurer. The first meeting for the election of officers was held at the store of N..LUDINGTON Company in Marinette February 15, 1867. The company immediately constructed a dam across the river at the head of the rapids, to set the water back and create a pond to hold the logs. They have since built another across the river where the old Dr. HALL mill stood, and a wing dam below that. The company has also put in a large number of piers and booms, and have now completed arrangements for holding and dividing the logs. In 1875, there passed through the dividing booms 602,285 logs, amounting to 112,056,280 feet of lumber, board measure. The largest amount that has passed through the booms in one year is 142,917,228 feet (in 1872).

The Gilmore Mill at the month of the Menominee was built in 1867 by Charles H. SPAFFORD and William Gilmore.


This company was incorporated in 1872. The incorporators were H. J. COLWELL, A. B. MEEKER, W. L. BROWN, John E. WREN, Jerome T. CASE, Morris R. HUNT. The first officers were: A. B. MEEKER, President; M. R. HUNT, Cashier; J. E. WREN, Secretary and Treasurer; Robert JACKSON, Superintendent; C. SPRONG, Assistant Superintendent and Accountant, and Richard DUNDON, Founder. The company commenced the construction of the furnace is October, 1872, and went into blast August, 1873.

Notwithstanding the depression of the iron market following the panic of 1873, the furnace has continued in blast, only stopping for repairs. Its average capacity with charcoal made from pine slabs and other soft wood is twenty tons of pig iron per day. The furnace is situated on the bay shore, at the north end of the village of Menominee. It was erected under the superintendence of James White, and cost $140,000.


This company was incorporated May 29, 1876. Capital stock, $500,000. The incorporators and stockholders are

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Samuel M. NICKERSON, Henry H. PORTER, Augustus A. CARPENTER, Samuel M. STEPHENSON and James B. GOODMAN. The company owns 24,762 acres of land. RAILROADS

The Chicago & North-Western Railroad Company for many years had contemplated extending its road to Lake Superior. The United States many years ago had made of grant of eight sections of land to the mile and the State of Michigan gave six sections of land to the mile to aid in its construction, but it was not until 1871 that the work was begun between Green Bay City (Fort Howard) and Menominee, and in that season the road was completed to Menominee. In 1872, it was extended from Menominee to Escanaba, in Delta County, where it connected with the Peninsula Division of the company's railroad, which terminated at Negaunee, connecting with the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad; this completed the line to Lake Superior. The railroad bridge across the Menominee was built in 1872. The line of their railroad was located somewhat with a view to the opening of the mines in the Menominee Iron Range, being run northerly from Menominee to a point twelve miles from the BREEN Mine, the nearest known mine in the range, then turning abruptly east to Escanaba

The only man connected with Menominee interests who was directly connected with this company was H. H. PORTER, who has labored hard in promoting the early completion of the road

This is the only railroad completed in the county.

Deer Creek & Marble Quarry Railroad Company was organized and incorporated in 1870 for the purpose of building a railroad from the Menominee iron range and marble quarries to the shore of Green Bay at Deer Creek, whish was the nearest point on the shore from the mines where docks could be made. The officers were: E. S. INGALLS, President; Salmon P. SAXTON, Secretary; Miles SHEPARD, Treasurer. The road has not been constructed, another company having been organized for the purpose of constructing a railroad from the line of the Chicago & North Western Railroad to the mines. The stockholders of this company made application to the Circuit Court for an order dissolving the corporation in 1876.

The Menominee River Railroad Company was incorporated in 1875, the purpose of the company being to construct a railroad to the Menominee iron range, before alluded to. It is expected that the company will construct a railroad from the Chicago & North-Western Railroad to the mines this present season. The company has a grant of land from the State of seven sections to the mile, to be selected in Menominee and Delta Counties to aid in the construction of the road. The grant was made on the condition that ten miles of the road should be constructed within one year, which ended May 3, 1876, and ten miles each year thereafter, but as the first ten miles has not been built the act has become inoperative. It is intended to construct twenty-six miles this year to the Quinnesec Mine, and it is believed that if the company shall do so the Legislature will renew the grant next winter.


The first steamboat that stopped at Menominee of which we have any record was the "New York," which called here for wood in 1836, on which was Daniel WELLS, Jr., who has since been so intimately connected with the mill interests of Menominee. It is said FARNSWORTH & BRUSH had just finished burning a pit of charcoal when the boat arrived, and the captain confiscated that with his other fuel. The steamer "Fashion," running from Chicago to Green Bay from 1851 to 1856, called at this port each way. The "Columbia" also came here in 1854. and the old steamer "Michigan " occasionally stopped here, and perhaps others that the old settlers do not remember. It was not until 1856 or 1857 that boats began to run regularly to the port of Menominee. The first among this class was the "Morgan L. Martin," a river boat, brought from the Fox River, Wis, which ran from Green Bay City to Menominee two or three times a week, but not very regularly. Previous to that time, the mail and passengers were brought by a small open sloop called the "Polly." In 1857, the steamer "Fannie Fisk," Capt. Daniel M. WHITNEY, Master, owned by Joel S.. FISK, of Fort Howard, Wis., was put on the line from Green Bay to Menominee, and made three trips per week regularly. She continued on the line until after the rebellion broke out, during which she was taken up the Fox River, down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, and down to New Orleans, where he was used as a Government transport. They made one trip to Matamoras, in Texas, and on her return was set up the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers, where, with several others, she was burned by the rebels.

In 1858, John B. JACOBS purchased and put upon the same line the steamer "Queen City," running alternate days with the steamer "Fannie Fisk;" this gave a daily boat from Green Bay to Menominee. Jacob continued to own her until he sold out to the Green Bay to Menominee River Navigation Company.

In the spring of 1866, the steamer "Union," owned by Augustus C. BROWN and F. B. GARDINER, was put on the line. The "Union" was first built for a tug at Pensaukee by F. B. GARDINER in 1865, and in 1866 was lengthened and fitted for a good sea boat. In 1867, she was sold to the Green Bay & Menominee River Navigation Company, this company being formed the same year. The incorporators were Isaac STEPHENSON, Samuel M. STEPHENSON, Abner KIRBY, Jesse SPALDING, F. B. Gardner, William J. FISK and, Augustus C. CARPENTER. The company continued to run the steamboats Union and Queen City until 1871 The Queen City was sold, and finally came into the hands of Capt. TAYLOR, and was burned in Green Bay, near Ford River, in the fall of 1875. The Union is still running from Green Bay to Escanaba, in charge of Capt. Thomas Hawley, who owns her.

After the Chicago & North-Western Railroad was completed to Fort Howard, Wis. (in 1863), a company connected with that road put on a daily line of steamers running from Fort Howard to Escanaba, stopping at Menominee each way. The first boats put on the line were the "Sarah Van Epps" and "Arrow. " A new boat built by the company called "George L. Dunlap" was put on in 1864. The "Sarah Van Epps " not giving satisfaction, was sold, and the "Saginaw" put in her place in 1868. After the railroad was completed to the Menominee River, the Saginaw ran only between Menominee and Escanaba, and was withdrawn altogether when the road was completed to the latter place. In 1869, the "Lady Franklin" was put on the line as an independent boat. When the boats began racing, they could not get into the river on account of the sandbar at the mouth and there were no docks on the shore. In 1868, the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company built a dock, used the Saginaw and George L. DUNLAP began stopping at it in 1869.

The first tug owned on the river was the Bog Mills which was bought in Buffalo by the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company, and brought here in 1868 The old Morgan L. Martin, after she had become too old to trust to the rough seas. Pg. 496

of the bay, was used as a tug. In 1869, George COON and Andrew STEPHENSON built a tug which they named "Annie Laurie," it being afterward owned by the Menominee River Lumber Company. She was afterward sold, and has left the waters of Green Bay. In 1870, the LUDINGTON, WELLS & VANSCHAICK Company bought the side-wheel tug Mary Reed, which they used for towing for awhile, and then sold her to parties in Saginaw. In 1872, the company bought the tug Bob Stephenson. In 1868, the N. LUDINGTON Company bought the side-wheel tug Isaac Stephenson. In 1874, Isaac STEPHENSON and S. M. STEPHENSON bought the tug Escanaba, and now own her. Previous to the purchase of the tugs, the lumber of the various mills were taken out to the vessels at anchor in scows, which were hauled by men with lines made fast to the shore and to the vessel that was to be loaded. This was not only slow bat very laborious and cold work, especially in the spring and fall, as the lines had to be fitted from the water as they progressed. Until 1871, nearly all the lumber made was shipped on sail vessels, and it was not unusual to see twenty-five vessels at anchorage at one time. In that year, the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company, purchased the propeller Favorite, a good sea boat, and barges that would stow from three to four hundred thousand feet each. In 1873, the Menominee River Lumber Company, H. WHILBECK Company and N. LUDINGTON Company bought a propeller, the Bismarck, and six barges, with a capacity for storing 3,000,000 feet of lumber. Now nearly all the lumber from Menominee is transported to Chicago by steam. The Bismarck is commanded by Capt. Joseph PERRETT.

Since 1869, the Goodrich Company of Chicago, who had a line of propellers running from that place to Green Bay City, have had their boats stop regularly at Menominee. The propellers Truesdell and St. Joseph were the first boats of their line that called here. The Oconto was afterward put in the place of the St. Joseph, and this year the Menominee takes the place of the Oconto. The Menominee is of 800 tons burden, and one of the best propellers on the lakes. Each boat makes two calls here every week, making a semi-weekly line of propellers from this point to Chicago, besides the trips of the Favorite and Bismarck. In 1869, Robert ONEIL built a small steamer to be used as a ferry boat, and to run around the bay in good weather. She was called "Kittie O'Neil," and is still on the river.

The only large vessel which has been built at Menominee is the scow "Menominee," built by Abner KIRBY in 1866 or 1867, which is still in use on the lakes.

FARMS As before stated, the first farms opened here were at Wausaukee Bend and at Chappieu's Rapids by the late John G. KITTSON. The whole county is covered with dense forest of pine, hemlock, beech, basswood, maple and other trees indigenous to a northern climate, with swamps covered with white cedar and tamarack trees. All of the beech and maple lands and cedar swamps when cleared become good farming lands, the cedar swamps when drained being the best.

For many years after the settlement was formed in the county it was thought that farming could not be made profitable, and the main business carried on was fur trading, lumbering and fishing. About 1855, several German families, among whom was William HACKERMAN, Henry BADE, Sr., Frederic and Henry SIEMAN; afterward Xavier ALGEYER and others came and took up and began to clear farms at what has since been known as the Birch Creek settlement, about seven miles from Menominee. They settled upon beech and maple lands, and now have large farms. The great fire of 1871 swept through the settlement, destroying everything in its course and many lives; but nothing daunted, the survivors commenced again the spring fencing their fields, and now have good buildings and larger clearings. The railroad runs through the settlement.

In 1858, Thomas CALDWELL commenced clearing a farm on the Little Cedar River, a branch of the Menominee, twenty miles above the mouth, and cleared about forty acres.

A year or two before that, Jesse L. HAMILTON commenced clearing a farm at the mouth of the Little Cedar, on the bank of the Menominee, at the foot of the Grand Rapids. He cleared a large farm which Patrick Devine and his son bought and lived on until the present year.

In 1866, the HAMILTON & MERRYMAN Company commenced clearing a farm fifty-six miles up the river with a view of supplying their logging camps, and thus save the expense of transporting hay and root crops. Their principal crop has been hay, oats, potatoes and other roots. The company now has 120 acres cleared. The value of the crop raised last year on the farm is $1,800. Adjoining the HAMILTON & MERRYMAN Company's farm the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company has a farm with 230 acres cleared; the value of the products of this farm for 1875 was $4,600. The crops were hay, potatoes, turnips, cabbage and a small amount of winter wheat as an experiment. Thomas MURRAY has charge of the farm. About one mile from these farms the H. WITBECK Company has a farm which was commenced in 1868, and now has 200 acres cleared. The crop last year was 140 tons of hay, worth on the farm $20 per ton; 1,500 bushels potatoes, worth 25 cent per bushel. The oat crop was cut for hay.

Adjoining this farm the LUDINGTON, WELLS & VANSCHAICK Company has a farm with 100 acres cleared; the value of the crops for last year was $1.586. This company has two other farms, one at the Relay House, twenty-five miles from Menominee Village, with 120 acres cleared; value of crops, 1875, $1,210, and one at Pike River, on the Wisconsin side, with forty acres cleared. At the mouth of the Sturgeon River, the Menominee River Lumber Company has a farm. The clearing on this farm was commenced in 1866; there are now 100 acres cleared The crops raised are principally hay, oats and potatoes. The estimated value of the crops at the farm for 1875 was $5,000.

All crops on these farms have a greater value than they would have in the village of Menominee, for they save transportation of their products a great distance. The farms are also used as stopping places for the men and teams going to and returning from the logging camps in the winter. The KIRBY-CARPENTER Company has also three other farms between Menominee Village and the farm mentioned. One, called the nine-mile farm, has ninety-five acres cleared; the total value of the product of 1875 is $2, 325. One at the mouth of Pike River, in Wisconsin, has eighteen acres cleared; total value of product of 1875, $1,176. Also one at the Grand Rapids with forty acres cleared; total value of products of 1875, $885. Some of the crops suffered from grasshoppers last year, which reduced the yield to less than average.

H. WITBECK Company has one other farm.

The N. LUDINGTON Company has a farm situated on the Menominee, near Pemina Creek This is a large farm, but we have not the statistics.

William HOLMES and George HENDERSON have opened a

pg. 497

farm on the Sturgeon River, in Township 40 north, Range 28 west, which is the farthest in the interior of any farm yet cleared.

Since the building of the railroad, many farms have begun to be cleared along it and also in other parts of the county, but space forbids that we should make particular mention of them here. The principal products of the farms are hay, oats and potatoes, but other grains and roots will grow and mature well. In time, the county will be a great dairy and sheep-raising district. All the cultivated grasses grow well, and the soil and climate are particularly adapted to growing root crops.

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