Churchill County was named for Fort Churchill, now in Lyon County. The Fort is named in honor of General Sylvester Churchill. He was promoted Brevet Brigadier-General, 23 February, 1847, in recognition of his services at the battle of Buena Vista, Mexico. Bucklands was the first county seat of Churchill County but it too is located in what is now Lyon County. Bucklands or Bucklands Station served travelers and the soldiers from Fort Churchill. Sam Buckland ran his trading post and tavern there. The county was officially organized in 1864 and La Plata was established as its county seat; then came Stillwater in 1868, and finally Fallon in 1903, its current county seat. Churchill County is the home of Naval Air Station Fallon. The 2004 population estimates are 24,355 for the county.
The bordering counties are:
- Lyon County Nevada to the West
- Washoe county to the Northwest
- Pershing county to the North
- Lander county to the East
- Nye county to the Southeast
- Mineral county to the South